Bias Based Profiling
Criminal profiling, which involves the derivation of behavioral characteristics and personality features from crime scene evidence, can be a useful implement in criminal investigations. Bias based profiling; however, is the selection of individuals based solely on a common trait of a group. This includes, but is not limited to, race, ethnic background, gender, sexual orientation, religion, economic status, age or culture.
It is the policy of the Clermont Police Department to patrol in a proactive manner, to investigate suspicious persons and/or circumstances, and to enforce motor vehicle laws. We are here to protect the community. Law enforcement officers are required to use skills developed through observation, training and experience in order to identify suspicious circumstances, unusual occurrences and violations of law, and to act according to the situation. Therefore, officers focus on a person’s conduct or other specific information, and will have reasonable suspicion (supported by articulable facts) that the person contacted has been, is or is about to commit a violation of the law.
We want to do the right thing. Discriminatory enforcement practices can alienate our citizens, foster distrust of police in the community, and invite media scrutiny, legislative action and judicial intervention, and potentially lead to allegations of constitutional and civil rights violations. As we perform our duties, it is imperative that we afford all citizens the Constitutional and fundamental right to equal protection under the law. We use accepted investigative tools. Criminal profiling is one of many accepted and necessary law enforcement investigative practices. However, it differs from and should not be confused with bias-based profiling. One is an investigative tool; the other, a discriminatory practice.
WHAT IS CRIMINAL PROFILING?
When we investigate crime, we use every legitimate tool at our disposal to narrow the list of potential suspects so we can identify, find and arrest those responsible for the crimes, to bring them to justice and to keep them from committing more acts against society.
Criminal profiling can assist us by narrowing the field of potential suspects in major criminal investigations. Based on current and historical law enforcement investigative knowledge and experience, we scrutinize a set of facts and factors common to specific (e.g., serial murder with a certain ‘signature’) or general (e.g., narcotics trafficking) criminal activity. From these facts and factors, we may be able to identify a type of person or group of people by gender, age, race, and/or by personality, social, and/or other characteristics who are most likely to be involved. This can result in fewer suspects to consider and a quicker resolution to the case.
HOW DOES CRIMINAL PROFILING DIFFER FROM BIAS-BASED PROFILING?
While criminal profiling does add elements (such as gender, race, or ethnicity) to a list of factors scrutinized to identify a suspect, these elements are only parts of several pieces of the puzzle that police must put together to solve crime.
We appreciate your interest in the Clermont Police Department. For information on this policy, or any other departmental policy, please contact the Office of Professional Standards.